Finance Sources A project’s funding may come from a variety of sources. The key sources of finance are equity, debt, and government grants. Financing from these many sources has a substantial influence on the overall project cost, cash flow, ultimate accountability, and claims to project income and assets.

Sources Of Project Financing

Here are the multiple sources for Project Finance

The structure of the project will define the sources of project funding (which is heavily impacted by project risks). There are various financing solutions available on the market to assist with construction costs. The asset type and risk profile affect the cost of any financial instrument (interest rates and fees).

Private Debt

  • Debt incurred as a result of an investment bank’s borrowing.
  • If bondholders are paid first, the cost of capital is low than for equity financing..

Public Debt

  • Debt issued by the government on the advice of an investment bank or adviser.
  • Because it is a government-sponsored initiative meant to encourage infrastructure development, it has the lowest cost of capital.

Equity Financing

  • Debt issued by the government on the recommendation of an investment bank or consultant.
  • Because that is a government-sponsored effort aimed to incentivize development activities, it has the lowest cost of capital.

Funding for a project may come from a number of sources. The key sources of finance are equity, debt, and government grants. The source of funding has a substantial influence on the overall project cost, cash flow, ultimate accountability, and claims on project income and assets.

The proposed project financing’s shape and structure have an impact on its capacity to obtain funding. The interests of investors and lenders will shift depending on the goals and risks connected with the financing. Projects with established political and economic risks are preferred by commercial funders. Multilateral institutions, on the other hand, are often less concerned with commercial funding norms and will prioritise projects that fulfil more than simply business requirements.

Types Of Private Debt

Bank Debt

Loans for project finance are made by commercial banks. Tenors vary in age from five to fifteen years. Significant in-house expertise..

Capital Markets/Taxable Bonds

Fund suppliers and fund users trade long-term debt and equity in the capital markets. Primary markets are those that issue new shares of stock and bonds, whereas secondary markets trade existing securities.

Institutional Investors/Private Placement

Private Placement Bonds are bonds that are sold directly to institutional investors (mainly insurance companies). The ability to structure a financing solution in a flexible manner.

Types Of Public Debt


The USDOT credit programme covers up to 33% (49%) of project capital costs. Long tenor, principal/interest holiday, subsidised interest rate, and flexible repayment terms are all available.

Capital Markets/Private Activity Bonds

A governmental program that will allow the disbursement of tax-exempt bonds to fund road transport capital costs. Project economics, capital markets, credit rating, and IRS regulations all influence financing terms.

Types Of Equity Financing

Subordinated Debt

In the event of liquidation, a loan or security that ranks lower than other loans or securities in terms of the cash flow waterfall and claims on assets or profits.

Shareholder Loans

Shareholder loans may be used to supplement shareholder finance. Allows for lower cost of capital

Bridge Loans

A bridge loan is a short-term financing tool used to provide immediate cash flow until a long-term financing option is found or an existing obligation is discharged.

Strategic and passive equity

Funds contributed by the development entity’s shareholders. Repayment following O&M and debt service. Lenders are required to ensure the capital is at risk. Depending on the project, this can range from 5 to 50 per cent of total private financing.